Featured Publications and Findings


Drawson, A. S., Tanner, J., Mushquash, C. J., Mushquash, A. R., & Mazmanian, D. (2017). The use of protective behavioural strategies in gambling: A systematic review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

This article reviewed 33 articles that examined harm reduction strategies for gambling that are considered protective behavioural strategies (PBSs). PBSs are behaviours that an individual can implement to avoid risky gambling behaviour, or risky situations as a result of gambling. These strategies typically fit into four categories: self-exclusion, time limit setting, monetary limit setting, and card-based gambling. Of all four categories, self-exclusion had the most evidence, showing a wide range of improvements for problem gamblers, although the quality of the research was limited and findings were inconsistent across studies of all strategies. 

Jamieson, J., Mazmanian, D., Penney, A., Black, N., & Nguyen, A. (2011). When problem gambling is the primary reason for seeking addiction treatment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(2), 180–192.

This study examined differences between clients presenting at an addiction treatment centre in Thunder Bay, Ontario, by comparing those whose main concerns were problem gambling, substance use and gambling, or substance use only. The individuals presenting primarily for gambling issues were more likely to be female, be older, have a higher level of education, more likely to be employed or retired, have better sources of income, have lower rates of problems with the law, were less frequently single, and less likely to use cannabis, when compared to the secondary gambling group and substance use only group. In comparison to people with substance abuse and gambling concerns, primary gamblers had higher rates of lifetime mental health diagnoses, anxiety and depression, however, they had comparatively low rates of substance problems. People concerned with their substance use and gambling were more similar to the substance use only group for the demographic variables than they were to the primary gamblers.

Penney, A., Mazmanian, D., Jamieson, J., & Black, N. (2012). Factors associated with recent suicide attempts in clients presenting for addiction treatment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(1), 132–140.

This study compared people with a past year history of hospitalization for attempting suicide, to those who did not, when they arrived at the Addiction Centre in Thunder Bay, Ontario. Those who were less educated, had major depressive disorder, a personality disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, bipolar disorder, or a gambling problem were more likely to have a historical suicide attempt.

Tanner, J., Drawson, A. S., Mushquash, C. J., Mushquash, A. R., & Mazmanian, D. (2017). Harm reduction in gambling: A systematic review of industry strategies. Addiction Research & Theory, 1–10.


The Gambling Research Exchange Ontario has completed a plain language summary of this work through their Research Snapshot series, find it here!

Other Gambling-Related Publications

Harris, N., & Mazmanian, D. (2016). Cognitive Behavioural Group Therapy for problem gamblers who gamble over the Internet: A controlled study. Journal of Gambling Issues, 33, 170–188.

Harris, N., & Mazmanian, D. (2016). Problem Internet gamblers’ perspectives on Cognitive Behavioural Group Therapy. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(6), 885–895.

Harris, N., Mazmanian, D., & Jamieson, J. (2013). Trust in Internet gambling and its association with problem gambling in university students. Journal of Gambling Issues, 28, 1–17.

Jamieson, J., Mushquash, C., & Mazmanian, D. (2003). Why do gamblers over-report wins? An examination of social factors. Journal of Gambling Issues, 9.

Kowatch, K. R., & Hodgins, D. C. (2015). Predictors of help-seeking for gambling disorder from the transtheoretical model perspective. International Gambling Studies, 15(3), 450–469.

Mutti-Packer, S., Kowatch, K., Steadman, R., Hodgins, D. C., el-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., … Smith, G. J. (2017). A qualitative examination of factors underlying transitions in problem gambling severity: Findings from the Leisure, Lifestyle, & Lifecycle Project. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(5), 424–431.

Tanner, J., & Mazmanian, D. (2016). Gambling attitudes and beliefs associated with problem gambling: The cohort effect of Baby Boomers. International Gambling Studies, 16(1), 98–115.

Select Publications Relevant to Substance Use, Mental Health, or Indigenous Populations

Alani-Verjee, T., Braunberger, P., Bobinski, T., & Mushquash, C. J. (2017). First Nations Elders in Northwestern Ontario’s perspectives of health, body image and eating disorders. Journal of Indigenous Wellbeing, 2, 76-96. 

Comeau, M. N., Stewart, S. H., Mushquash, C., Wojcik, D., Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., … Stevens, D. (2005). Community collaboration in developing a culturally relevant alcohol abuse early intervention program for First Nation youth. Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies Journal, 49, 39–46.

Drawson, A.S., Houlding, C., Braunberger, P., Sawula, E., Wekerle, C., & Mushquash, C.J. (2016). Violence and resilience: A scoping review of treatment of mental health problems for Indigenous youth. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 4(1), 48–63.

Drawson, A.S., Toombs, E., & Mushquash, C.J. (2017). Indigenous research methods: A systematic review. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 8(2), 5.

Hall, L., Dell, C. A., Fornssler, B., Hopkins, C., Mushquash, C., & Rowan, M. (2015). Research as cultural renewal: Applying two-eyed seeing in a research project about cultural interventions in First Nations addictions treatment. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 6(2), 1–15.

Hutchinson, P., Mushquash, C., & Donaldson, S. (2008). Conducting health research with Aboriginal communities: Barriers and strategies for graduate student success. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 31, 268–278.

Mushquash, C. (2014). A brief description of an early alcohol use intervention for First Nations adolescents. Canadian Psychology, 55(1), 48-49.

Mushquash, C. J., & Bova, D. L. (2007). Cross-cultural assessment and measurement issues. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 13(1), 53–65.

Mushquash, C. J., Comeau, M. N., McLeod, B. D., & Stewart, S. H. (2010). A four-stage method for developing early interventions for alcohol among Aboriginal adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(2), 296–309.

Mushquash, C. J., Comeau, N., & Stewart, S. H. (2007). An alcohol abuse early intervention approach with Mi’kmaq adolescents. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(2), 17–26.

Mushquash, A. R., Sherry, S. B., Mackinnon, S. P., Mushquash, C. J., & Stewart, S. H. (2014). Heavy episodic drinking is a trait-state: A cautionary note. Substance Abuse, 35(3), 222–225.

Mushquash, C. J., Stewart, S.H., Comeau, N.M., & McGrath, P.J. (2008). The structure of drinking motives in First Nations adolescents in Nova Scotia. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research (Online), 15(1), 33–52.

Mushquash, C. J., Stewart, S. H., Mushquash, A. R., Comeau, M. N., & McGrath, P. J. (2014). Personality traits and drinking motives predict alcohol misuse among Canadian Aboriginal youth. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(3), 270–282.

Rowan, M., Poole, N., Shea, B., Gone, J. P., Mykota, D., Farag, M., … Dell, C. (2014). Cultural interventions to treat addictions in Indigenous populations: Findings from a scoping study. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 9(34), 1–26.

Rowan, M., Poole, N., Shea, B., Mykota, D., Farag, M., Hopkins, C., … Dell, C. A. (2015). A scoping study of cultural interventions to treat addictions in Indigenous populations: Methods, strategies and insights from a Two-Eyed Seeing approach. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 10(26).


Russell, C., Firestone, M., Kelly, L., Mushquash, C., & Fischer, B. (2016). Prescription opioid prescribing, use/misuse, harms and treatment among Aboriginal people in Canada: A narrative review of available data and indicators. Rural and Remote Health, 16(3974).

Toombs, E., Kowatch, K., & Mushquash, C.J. (2016). Resilience in Canadian Indigenous youth: A scoping review. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 4(1), 4–32.

Zahradnik, M., Stevens, D., Stewart, S., Comeau, N., Wekerle, C., & Mushquash, C. (2007). Building a collaborative understanding of pathways to adolescent alcohol misuse in a Mi’kmaq community: A process paper. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(2), 27–36.